Original image by NASA, ESA, H. Teplitz and M. Rafelski (IPAC/Caltech), A. Koekemoer (STScI), R. Windhorst (Arizona State University), and Z. Levay (STScI); cropped by L. Marmet.

## Cosmology CalculatorDirect measurements of the Hubble constant disagree with predictions from ΛCDM based on measurements of the cosmic microwave background. The tension is forcing cosmologists to revise every aspect of the ΛCDM model. A static universe cosmology could resolve the tension. This webpage provides a Cosmology Calculator for both ΛCDM and a Static Universe cosmology in which a Tired-Light mechanism produces the cosmological redshift. |
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## ΛCDM Cosmology Based on the calculator written by Ned
Wright (2006, PASP, 118, 1711): The size evolution of star-forming galaxies follows the power law: _{e} = r_{0} (1 + z)^{nS} kpc.
The Tolman test for expansion predicts a surface brightness <SB> that decreases as (1 + z) ^{4-nL} mag,
where n _{evol} = 2.5 log (1 +z)^{nL} mag.
These two functions are included below so that the calculated distances correspond to raw observational data. Enter values, the results will appear immediately. km/s/Mpc Open: sets Ω _{Λ} = 0 giving an open Universe [if you
entered Ω_{M} < 1].Flat: sets Ω _{Λ} = 1 - Ω_{M}
giving a flat Universe.General: uses the Ω _{Λ} that you entered.*** JavaScript not enabled or script file missing *** Source for the default parameters H _{0}, Ω_{M} and Ω_{Λ}Source for the default parameter n _{S}Source for the default parameter n _{L} |
## SUTL Cosmology An equivalent to the Mattig formula is obtained in a Static Universe Cosmology from the differential equation -d(hν) = H(hν) dt expressing the energy loss as a function of time for a Tired-Light redshift. _{A} = (c/H_{0}) ln (1 + z).
Since the universe is flat and not expanding in the model, the radial distance is equal to the angular distance D _{L} = (1 + z)^{1/2} D_{A}.
An object at temperature T is seen as a blackbody with excess brightness _{0}(λ_{0}) = (1 + z)^{3} 8πhc / [λ_{0}^{5} (e^{hc/(λ0kTW)} - 1)]
but the Wien temperature T Enter values, the results will appear immediately. km/s/Mpc Flat Universe *** JavaScript not enabled or script file missing *** Source for the default parameter H _{0}all parameters to default values. the value of H _{0} that gives d_{AO}(ΛCDM) = d_{A}(SUTL). |
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## DiscussionIt is difficult to compare the two models to a high accuracy. Astrophysical data are currently analyzed with the assumptions of ΛCDM cosmology and corrected for various effects in powers of 1 + z (e.g. luminous flux, time dilation, galactic evolution, Hubble residuals, deceleration parameter, etc.) Both calculator give observed quantities which, for ΛCDM, are corrected to include the large effects of galactic evolution. However other effects are difficult to disentangle from an analysis based on the ΛCDM model. Interpreting observations with the ΛCDM model, it is easy to understand why, " Updated 2020-7-3 © 2020 Louis Marmet |